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    1. The factory Act, 1948 (amended 1987 & 2001)-An Act to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories.

    • State Factory Rule of Respective State.

    2. The Mines Act 1952 (amended 2011)-An Act to amended and consolidate the law relating to the regulation of labour and safety mines.

    1. The Mines Rules, 1955 (Amended 1989)
    2. The Coal Mines, Regulation 1957
    3. The Metallic-Ferrous Mines Regulation, 1961
    4. The Mines Vocational Rules, 1966
    5. The Oil Mines Regulation, 1985
    6. The Mines Rescue Rule, 1985

    3. The Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986. An Act to gives effect to the Conversation concerning the protection against accident of workers employed in loading and unloading ships.

    1. The Dock Worker (Safety, Health & Welfare) Regulation, 1990

    4. The Indian Boiler Act Regulations 1950 (amended 2008)

    1. Boiler Rules of Respective States

    5. The Building and other constructions workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of services) Act, 1996 - An Act to regulate the employment and condition of services of building and other construction workers and to provide for their safety, health and weal fare measures and for other matters connected therewith or incident thereto.

    1. The building and other construction workers (Regulation of Employment & Condition of Service) central Rules, 1998
    2. State Rule made under the act of respective State.

    6. The dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983 - An Act to provide for the regulation of trade and commerce in and production, supply, distribution and use of the product of any industry producing dangerous machines with a view to securing the welfare of labour, operating any such machine and for payment of compensation for death or bodily injury suffered by any labourer while operating any such a machine, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

    1. The Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Rules, 1984 (amended 2007)

    7. The motor Transport Workers Act, 1961 (amended 1986)-An Act to provide for the welfare of motor transport workers and to regulate the conditions of their work.

    1. The Motor Transport Workers Rules, 1964

    8. The plantation labour act, 1951 (amended 1982) and Rules there under - An Act to provide for the welfare of labours and to regulate the conditions of work, in plantations.

    9. The Beedi & Cigar workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 (amended 1993). Act to provide for the welfare of the workers in beedi and cigar establishments and regulated the condition of their work formatters connected therewith.

    1. State Rules of Respective States

    10. The Shops and Commercial Establishments Act enacted by respective State Governments.

    11. The Explosives Act, 1884 (amended 1983)-An Act to regulate the manufacture possession, use, sale, transport, import and export of Explosives.

    1. The explosives Rules, 2008
    2. The Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (unfired) Rules, 1981 (amended 2002)
    3. The Gas Cylinders Rules, 2004

    12. The petroleum Act, 1934-An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the import, transport, storage, production, refining and blending of petroleum.

    1. The Petroleum Rules, 2002
    2. The Calcium Carbide Rules, 1987
    3. The Cinematography Film Rules, 1948

    13. The inflammable substance Act, 1952 - An Act to declare certain substances to be dangerously inflammable and to provide of the regulation of their import, transport, storage and production by applying thereto the petroleum Act, and the rules there under and for certain matters connected with such regulation.

    14. The Oilfields (Regulations and Development) Act, 1948 - An Act to provide for the regulation of oilfields and for the development of mineral oil resources.

    1. The petroleum and Natural Gas (Safety in Offshore Operations) Rules, 2009.

    15. The Petroleum and Nature Gas Regulation Board Act, 2006 - An Act to provide for the establishment of Petroleum and Nature Gas Regulatory Board to regulate the refining, petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil and nature gas to as to protect the interests of consumers and enities.

    1. The Petroleum and Natural Gas (Appointment of Consultants) Regulation, 2007.
    2. The Petroleum and Natural Gas (Code of Practice for Emergency Response and Disaster Management Plan) Regulation, 2010.

    16. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (amended 1991) - An Act to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and matters connected therewith.

    1. The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 (amended 2010)
    2. The Manufacture Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 (amended 2000)
    3. The Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro Organisms, Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cell, 1989 (amended 2010)
    4. The Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Tranboundry Movement) Rules, 2008 (amended 2010)
    5. The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 19996
    6. The Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 (amended 2003)
    7. The Environment (Sitting for Industrial Projects) Rules, 199
    8. The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 (amended 2010)
    9. The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation & Control)” Rules, 2000 (amended 2007)
    10. The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000
    11. The Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001 (amended 2010)
    12. The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006
    13. The Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
    14. The E-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011
    15. The Costal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011

    17. The water (Preventions Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (amended 1988) - An Act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.

    1. The water (prevention & control of pollution) Rules, 1975

    18. The Water (Preventions & Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 (amended 2003) - An Act to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries and by local authorities, with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the Prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

    1. The water (Prevention & Control or Pollution) Cess Rules. 1978

    19. The Air (Preventions & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (amended 1987) - an Act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes, O Boards, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.

    1. The Air (Preventions & Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982

    20. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 (amended 1992) - An Act provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance and for matters connected herewith or incidental thereto.

    1. The Public liability Insurance Rules, 1991 (amended 1993)

    21. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 - An Act for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources and giving relief and compensation or damages to persons and property.

    1. The National Green Tribunal (Practice & Procedure) Rules, 2011

    22. The Motor Vehicles Act, (amended 2001) - An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to motor vehicles.

    1. The Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 (amended 2005) and Motor Vehicles Rules of respective States.

    23. The central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 (amended 2005) and Motor Vehicles Rules of respective States.

    1. The Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 1996
    2. The Atomic Energy (Working of Mines, Minerals and Handling of prescribed Substances) Rules, 1984.
    3. The Atomic Energy (Control of Food Irradiation) Rules, 1996

    24. The Insecticides Act, 1968 (amended 2000) - An Act to regulate the import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to prevent risk to human beings of animals and for matters connected therewith.

    1. The Insecticides Rules, 1991 (amended 2006)
      1. 25. The Electricity Act, 2003 (amended 2007) - An Act to consolidate the laws relating to generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity and generally for taking measures conducive to development of electricity industry, promoting competition therein, protecting interest of consumers and supply of electricity to all areas, rationalization of electricity tariff, ensuring transparent policies regarding subsidies, promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies, constitution of Central Electricity Authority, Regulatory Commissions and establishment of Appellate Tribunal and formatters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

        1. The Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 (amended 2006)

        26. The Energy Conservation Act, 2001 (amended 2010) - An Act to provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation and for maters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

        27. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 - An Act provides for the effective management of disasters and for matters connected therewith or incident thereto.

  • A. The Factories Act and State Rules framed under it.

    1. Permission to construct, extend or take into use any building as factory. (State Rules under Sec. 6)
    2. Approval of site and Building Plans (State Rules under Sec. 6)
    3. Appraisal of site by State Site Appraisal Committee [Factories Covered under Sec. 2 (cb)] (State Rules under Sec. 41).
    4. Licence to use as factory (State Rules under Sec. 6)
    5. Approval for certificate of stability of factory building.

    B. The Environment Protection Act and Rules framed under it.

    1. Environmental Clearance from State Dept. of Environment/Ministry of Environment & Forests (EIA Notification)
    2. Approval and Notification of site (in respect of hazardous chemicals) (MSIHC Rule-7)
    3. Authorization for handling hazardous wastes (HW Rule-5)
    4. Approval for design and layout of the facility for setting up of HW treatment, storage & disposal facility (HW Rule-18)
    5. Permission to import and export of Hazardous Wastes (HW Rules 12-17)
    6. Authorization for handling of Bio-medical Waste(Bio-medical Waste Rule-8)

    C. The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act

    1. Consent for establishment for any industry, operation or process etc. for discharge of trade effluents (Sec. 25)

    D. The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act

    1. Consent for establishment for any operation of any industrial plant in air pollution control areas (Sec. 21)

    E. The Public Liability Insurance Act

    1. Public Liability Insurance Policy by Owners for handling of Hazardous substances (Sec. 4)

    F. The Explosives Act and Rules framed under it Explosives Rules

    1. Authorization of explosives (Rule-6)
    2. Licences for import of export of explosives (Rules 7, 45 & 46); transport (Rule 47); road van (Rule 61); manufacturing process (Rule 26); possession, sale and use of explosives (Rules 7&71); permit for temporary possession of manufactured fireworks in excess of licenced quantity (Rule 75); prior approval before construction (Rule 101); application for grant of licence (Rule 105); transfer of licence (Rule 108).

    Cylinder Rules

    1. Approval of fabrication of cylinders, valves and other fittings (Rule 3)
    2. Licences for import (Rule 29); compression of acetylene (Rule 40) and filling and possession (Rule 43).
    3. Prior approval of specification and plans of premises proposed to be licensed (Rule 44), for alteration (Rule 53)

    Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (unfired) Rules

    1. Approvals for manufacturing of pressure vessels [Rule 4 (2)], Repair to pressure vessels (Rule 6)
    2. Licence for transport of compressed gas (Rule 35)
    3. Application for prior approval of specification and plans of vessels and premises proposed to be licenced (Rule 46)
    4. Application for grant of licence for storage and transportation of compressed gas (Rule 49)
    5. Prior approval of alteration in licence premises (Rule 53)

    G. Petroleum Act Petroleum Rules

    1. Approvals for containers (Rule 4), tank vehicles (Rule 63); design and route of pipeline (Rule 89), Refinery (Rule 162)
    2. Licences for Import of petroleum (Rule 14), carriage of petroleum in bulk by water (Rule 33), Transport of Petroleum class A & B in bulk by land (Rule 75), Storage of Petroleum in bulk (Rule 116), Specified purposes as per First Schedule under the Rules (Rule 41)
    3. Prior approval of specification and plans of premises proposed to be licenced for storage (Rule 41)
    4. Prior approval for alteration in licenced premises (Rule 146)

    H. The Indian Boilers Act

    1. Certificate of authorization for use for boiler and renewal (sec. 7, Regulation 389)

    I. The Insecticides Act & Rules

    1. Registration of insecticides (Sec. 9)
    2. Licence to manufacture, sell, stock, exhibit for sale or distribute (Sections 13, 14 and Rule 9 & 10)

    J. The Building and other construction works (Regulation of Employment and condition of service) Act & Central Rules.

    1. Registration of establishment (Sec. 7 Rule 23)
    2. Approvals for health and safety policy (Rule 39); working areas in a free air tunnel provided with ventilation =system (Rule 153); decompression procedure at tunneling work [Rule 166 – C(V)]; Chute exceeding twelve meters in height [Rule 177 – C(a)]; Trestle scaffold with more than three tiers and working platform more than 4.5 mtrs. Above the ground of floor or other surface upon which the scaffold is erected [Tule 202 (a)]; suspended scaffolds counter, balanced by counter weights [Rule 204 (b)]; and inspection of the cofferdams or caissons for safety by the responsible person [2006 (d)]
    3. Permission to use immaterial lock for compression and decompression of building workers, where it is impracticable to install both man-lock and Imaterial-lock at a tunneling work [Rule 166-C(iv)]

  • MOEF HAS NOTIFIED THE Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 vide S.O. 249 (E) dated 4th February, 2011. It replaces the earlier Recycled Plastics manufacture and usage Rules, 1999. The highlights of the Rules are given below.

    Definition: (Rule 3)

    The notification provides definitions of the terms such as Plastic, Multilayered Plastics, Compostable Plastic, Carry Bags, Plastic Waste Management, Manufacturer and Extended Producer’s Responsibility (EPR)

    Prescribed Authority: (Rule 4)

    The prescribed Authority means the Authority:

    1. For enforcement of the previsions of these rules related to registration, manufacture and recycling shall be State Pollution Control Board and in respect of a Union territory shall be the pollution control committee.
    2. For enforcement of the provisions of these rules relating to the use, collection, segregation, transportation and disposal of plastic waste, the prescribed authority shall be the municipal authority concerned.

    Conditions: (Rule 5)

    During the course of manufacture, stocking, distribution, sale and use of carry bags and sachets, the following conditions shall be fulfilled, namely:

    1. Carry bags shall either be “in natural shade (colourless) which is without any added pigments” or made using only those pigments and colourants which are in conformity with Indian standard: IS 9833 : 1981 titled as list or pigments and colourants for use in plastics in contact with foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and drinking water;
    2. No person shall use carry bags made of recycled plastic or compostable plastics for storing, carrying, dispensing or packaging food stuffs;
    3. No person shall manufacture, stock, distribute or sell any carry bag made of virgin or recycled or compostable plastic, which is less than 40 microns in thickness;
    4. Sachets using plastic material shall not be used for storing, packing or selling gutkha, tobacco and pan masala;
    5. Recycled carry bags shall conform to the Indian Standard : IS 14534 : 1998 titled as Guidelines for Recycling of Plastics;
    6. Carry bags made from compostable plastics shall conform to the Indian Standard: IS/ISO 17088 : 2008 titled as Specifications for Compostable plastics.

    Plastic Waste Management: (Rule 6)

    The plastic waste management shall be as under:

    1. Recycling, recovery or disposal or plastic waste shall be carried out as per the rules regulation and standards stipulated by the central Government from time to time;
    2. Recycling of plastics shall be carried out in accordance with the Indian Standard: IS 14534 : 1998 titled as Guidelines for Recycling of Plastics;
    3. The municipal authority shall be responsible for setting up, operationalisation and co-ordination of the Waste Management System and for performing the associated function including awareness among all stakeholders about their responsibilities and ensuring that open burning of plastic waste is not permitted;
    4. For setting up plastic waste collection centers, the municipal authority may ask the manufactures, either collectively or individually in line with the principle of Extended producer’s Responsibility to provide the required finance to establish such collection center;
    5. Recyclers shall ensure that recycling facilities are in accordance with the Indian Standard: IS 14534: 1998 titled as Guidelines for Recycling of Plastics and in compliance with the rules under Environment (Protection). Act 1986
    6. The concerned municipal authority shall ensure that the residues generated from recycling processes are disposed of in compliance with Schedule II (Management of municipal solid wastes) and schedule III (Specifications for Landfill Sites) of the municipal solid wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 made under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;
    7. The municipal authority shall incorporate the said rules in the municipal bye lays of all the Urban Local Bodies;
    8. The municipal authority shall encourage the use of plastic waste by adopting suitable technology such as in road construction, co-incineration etc. the municipal authority or the operator intending to use such technology shall ensure the compliance with prescribed standards including pollution control norms prescribed by the competent authority in this regard.

    Protocols for Compostable Plastic Material: (Rule 7)

    Determination of the degree of degradability and degree of disintegration of plastic material shall be as per the protocols of the Indian standards listed in the Annexure to these rules.

    Marking of Labeling: (Rule 8)

    1. Each plastic carry bag and multilayered plastic pouch or sachet shall have the following information printed in English or in local language, namely:
      1. Name registration number of the manufacturer and thickness in case of carry bag:
      2. Name and registration number of the manufacturer in case of multilayered plastic pouch or sachet.
    2. Each recycled carry bag shall bear a label or a mark “recycle” as shown below and shall conform to the Indian Standard : IS 14534 : 1998 titled as Guidelines for Recycling of plastics;
    3. Each carry bag made from compostable plastic shall bear a liable “compostable” and shall conform to the Indian Standard : IS/ISO 17088 : 2008 titled as Specifications for Compostable Plastics;
    4. Retailers shall ensure that plastic carry bags and multilayered packaging sold by them are properly labeled, as per stipulations under these rules.
    5. Registration of Manufacturers and Recyclers : (Rule 9)
      1. Any person manufacturing of proposing to manufacture plastic carry bags, multilayered plastic pouch or sachet shall apply to the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) or Pollution Control Committee (PCC) of the Union territory concerned for the grant of registration or for the renewal or registration for the manufacturing unit using form I appended to these rules;
      2. Any person recycling or proposing to recycle carry bags or multilayered plastic pouch or sachet or any plastic waste shall apply to the SPCB OR PCC for grant or registration or renewal or registration for the recycling unit using from 2 appended to these rules;
      3. Every SPCB OR PCC, as the case may be, shall take a decision on the grant of registration within a period of ninety days of receipt of an application.

      The manufacturer who has already registered for manufacturing under the Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage (Amendment) Rules, 2003 shall not be required to register under these rules.

    6. The registration granted under this rule shall be valid for a period of three years unless revoked, suspended or cancelled; and registration shall not be revoked, suspended or cancelled without providing the manufacturer an opportunity for a hearing.
    7. Every application for renewal or registration shall be made at least ninety days before the expiry of the validity of the registration certificate.
      1. Explicit Pricing of Carry Bags : (Rule 10)

        No carry bags shall be made available free of cost by retailers to consumers. The concerned municipal authority may by notification determine the minimum price for carry bags depending upon their quality and size which covers their material and waste management cost in order to encourage their reuse so as to minimize plastic waste generation.

        State Level Advisory Body : (Rule 11)

        1. There shall be a State Level Advisory Body to monitor the implementation of these Rules.
        2. The State Level Advisory Body shall meet at least once in a year and may invite experts if it considers necessary.

        Annual Reports : (Rule 12)

      2. Each State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee shall prepare and submit the annual report to the Central Pollution Control Board on the implementation of these rules by the 30th day of September of each year.
      3. The Central Pollution Control Board shall prepare a consolidated annual report on the use and management of plastic waste and forward it to the central government alone with its recommendations before the 30th day of December each year.

      Annexure: Provides list of IS/ISO Standards on Determination of degree of disintegration of plastic materials.

      Form 1: Application for registration of a unit for the manufacture of plastic carry bags and multilayered plastics.

      From 2: Application from for registration of facilities possessing environmentally sound management practices for recycling plastic waste.

  • Requirement:

    MoEF has notified the MSIHC Rules, 1989 under the EP Act, 1986 to deal with the safety and environmental aspects associated with hazardous chemicals. Under these Rules certain levels of controls are prescribed termed as i) Low, ii) Medium and iii) High level requirements.

    Under high level requirements 27 chemicals are included under schedule-3 (column-4 criteria) and for isolate storages under schedule-2 (column-4 criteria), an occupier requires to prepare safety report under the Rule 10 in the format specified in schedule 8 and submit it to the concerned authority.

    1. To present the entire safety system to the appropriate authorities.
    2. Authorities will get an opportunity
      1. To check extent of adherence to safety standards;
      2. To carryout specific inspection;
      3. To establish contingency plan; and
      4. To take proper sitting decision.


    1. To indentify the nature and scale of the use of hazardous substances in the industrial unit or the isolated storage;
    2. Give an account of the arrangement for safe operation;
    3. To give an account of arrangement for control of serious deviations that could lead to a major accident;
    4. To give an account of the arrangements for emergency procedures at the site;
    5. To identify the type, relative likelihood and consequences of major accident; and
    6. To demonstrate the all major hazard potentials have been indentified and appropriate control measures have been provided.
    7. Dating of Report: (Rule 11)

      1. Any modification or change in an operation or process
      2. Within 3 years from last date of submission of the report. While updating the report occupier should take into account any new technical knowledge which might affect the particulars relating to safety and hazard assessment.
      3. 1. Content (Schedule 8 of MSIHC Rules, 1989):

        1. The name and address of the person furnishing the information

        2. Description of the industrial activity, namely

        1. Site;
        2. Construction design;
        3. Protection zones, explosion protection, separation distances;
        4. Accessibility of plant;
        5. Maximum number of persons working on the site and particularly of those persons exposed to hazard.

        3. Description of the process, namely

        1. Technical purpose of the industrial activity
        2. Basic principles of the technological process;
        3. Process and safety-related date for the individual process stages;
        4. Proves description
        5. Safety-related types of utilities

        4. Description of the hazardous chemicals, namely

        1. Chemicals (quantities, substance, safety-related, toxicological data and threshold values);
        2. The form in which the chemicals may occur or into which they may be transformed, in the event of abnormal conditions;
        3. The degree of purity of the hazardous chemical.

        5. Information of the preliminary hazard analysis, namely

        1. Types of accident;
        2. System elements or events that can lead to a major accident;
        3. Hazards;
        4. Safety-relevant components.

        6. Description of safety-relevant units, among others

        1. Special design criteria;
        2. Controls and alarms;
        3. Special relief systems;
        4. Quick-acting valves;
        5. Collecting tanks/dump tanks;
        6. Sprinkler system;
        7. Fire-fighting, etc.

        7. Information on the hazard assessment, namely

        1. Identification of hazards;
        2. The causes of major accident;
        3. Assessment of hazards according to their occurrence frequency;
        4. Assessment of accident consequences;
        5. Safety systems;
        6. Known accident history

        8. Description of information on organizational systems used to carry on the industrial activity safely, namely

        1. Maintenance and inspection schedules;
        2. Guidelines for the training of personnel;
        3. Allocation and delegation of responsibility of plant safety;
        4. Implementation of safety procedures.

        9. Information on assessment of the consequences of major accidents, namely

        1. Assessment of the possible release of hazardous chemicals or of energy;
        2. Possible dispersion of release of hazardous chemicals or of energy;
        3. Assessment of the effects of the releases (size of affected area, health effects, property damage).

        10. Information on the mitigation of major accidents, namely

        1. Fire brigade;
        2. Alarm systems;
        3. Emergency plan containing system of organization used to fight the emergency, the alarm and the communication routes, guidelines for fighting the emergency, information about hazardous chemicals, examples of possible accident sequences;
        4. Coordination with the District Emergency Authority and its off-site emergency plan;
        5. Notification of the nature and scope of the hazard in the event of an accident;
        6. Antidotes in the event of release of a hazardous chemical.

  • The general evolution in environmental awareness during the 1970s focused attention on hazardous industry, and particularly the potential impact of accidents on workers in the industry and on surrounding communities. The approaches and principles established then have since been constantly refined and remain the cornerstone of modern risk management. Industry has the responsibility for managing its activities to protect workers and the community in the neighborhood. Risk assessment is the first step in meeting this responsibility. Risk assessment can be done qualitatively or quantitatively.

    1. Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Qualitative risk assessment involves hazard identification and risk assessment in industry. It involves listing of all work activities in every department, whether carried out by own employees, contractor personnel or anyone else, indentifying the hazards associated with each of the activities, the existing control measures against each indentified hazard, and likelihood of harm to (1) people (injury or ill-health), (2) assets/material and /or (3) environment. Thereafter, each risk is assessed and rated, based on a matrix (table), risks are then qualitatively classified as tolerable (acceptable) or intolerable (unacceptable). If a risk is classified as intolerable, additional control measures needed to bring down the risk level within the tolerable limit are recommended. The qualitative risk rating uses numbers, indicating the level or risk. The inference of these numbers used in the rating system needs to be defined to minimize subjectivity.

    It is the prerogative of the individual management to decide what the acceptable level of risk is. For example, the management may decide that assessed risk with a risk rating of 1 or 2 are sustainable and hence within the acceptable (tolerable) limited. That means a risk rating above 2 (that is 3, 4 or 5) will be considered as unacceptable (or intolerable). Thus, a risk rating of 3 and above will mean that the existing control measures are not adequate and additional control measure would be needed to bring down the risk level within the acceptable level. However, the cost- benefit analysis should be carried out to recommend the additional control measures. The risk ranking methodology provides the basis for making risk-based decision without the need for quantitative risk analysis.

    Control or Risk:

    The control or reduction of risks involves the following possible alternatives.

    1. Termination (elimination of risk)
    2. Treatment (improvement of modification)
    3. Tolerance (acceptance of risk, i.e., “self-insurance” or do nothing)
    4. Transfer (insurance)

    2. Quantitative Risk Assessment

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a key element tool applied in safety management and risk control throughout design, construction, and operation and decommissioning of all industrial activities in order to control major hazards and achieve safe operations QRA is basically carried out where hazardous materials such as flammable and toxic materials are used, produced, stored or otherwise handled in large quantities. Loss of containment of such material may not only affect the employees and the property, but also the neighboring communities. QRA provides a quantifiable estimate of the risks posed as well as enables risk mitigation methods to be evaluated so that risks can be reduced to acceptable levels.

    The basic aim of QRA is to reduce the risk of an undesired event, thereby preserving personnel, material and infrastructure. The process is one that addresses required deviations from established minimum acceptable levels of safety by indentifying the risk, analyzing it in terms of probability and consequence, monitoring the hazardous activities, having the concerned authorities accept and approve the risks ensuring that the risks are properly monitored and controlled.

    QRA Elements :

    1. Identification of potential major-accidents on the site (major accident scenarios and loss of containment).
    2. Description methodology by which the major accident scenarios were identified.
    3. Consequences of each major accident scenario in terms of blast damage and concentration of flammable or toxic gases as a function of distance from the source.
    4. Estimate probability of each major accident scenario in terms of events per year and the methodology for estimation.
    5. Estimate individual risk of fatality as function of distance from the source.

    Quantitative risk assessment combiners the known frequency (or probability) of an undesirable event that might potentially affect employees and the neighboring communities with the consequences, if something goes wrong. It then compares the results of these calculations against a benchmark of acceptable risk. A one-in-a-million chance of an individual death occurring in a year at particular location is the globally-accepted benchmark for the additional risk that industry imposes on a residential population. You may have seen this result expressed as something like 1 X 10-6, which really translates to a one-in-a-million chance of that activity causing an individual death in that particular location in a given year.

    Comparing the outcome of the calculation of quantitative risk against the benchmark tells us weather the risk is low enough, for regulators and the public, to be considered acceptable. These assessments are done by use of computer-based modeling.

    Results or quantitative risk assessments may be expressed as lines or “risk contours” on a map ground an industrial development, describing the risk at a particular location. These risk contours are drawn on the very conservative assumption that an individual would remain exposed in that particular location for the entire year. Risk assessment provides an objective, technical evaluation of the likelihood of unacceptable impacts to human health and the environment. The purpose is to assess the need for protective measures, since a specific risk assessment is a precondition for any such protective measures.

    The consequence modeling will take account of the potential harm to people using defined criteria. These criteria are use to determine vulnerability values for personnel at defined creation for each of the scenarios considered in the assessment.

    Quantitative risk assessment can serve as the basis for preparing effective on-site and off-site emergency response plans.

    Merits and Demerits :

    1. Qualitative Risk Assessment

    1. It is quite simple and easy to carry out and easy to understand.
    2. It does not require used of computer software or models.
    3. It is acceptable to authorities for most purposes.
    4. It is also acceptable to authorities for most purpose.
    5. It requires highly experienced and trained people to do it.
    6. There is scope of subjectivity in the assessment.
    7. The exact extent of off-site consequences of a major accident is difficult to assess.

    2. Quantitative Risk Assessment

    1. It can tell more precisely the actual areas affected and the extent of damage.
    2. It is more useful for preparing an effective off-site disaster management plan.
    3. It does not have scope for subjectivity.
    4. It requires the estimation of the frequency of release of various sizes (and consequence assessments) to take account of the full range of pope work sizes and equipment.
    5. Critics have expressed concerns that quantitative risk assessment tends “overly” quantitative. “For example”, they argue that risk assessments if qualitative differences among risk. The quantitative risk assessments may out important non-quantifiable or inaccessible information, such as varia among the classes of people exposed to hazards.
    6. Some experts claim that quantitative approach diverts attention for precautionary or preventive measures. Some fell that the risk managers may little more than “blind users” of statistical tools and methods.
  • Introduction:

    The construction industry has an important role to play in the economic growth of the country. However, it is hazardous and has high risk of accidents. It is therefore necessary to ensure safety and health of the workers in the construction industry. The Govt. of India has enacted the Building and other construction workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of service) Act, 1996 and notified the Central Rules framed there under. States have also notified the Rules under the Act.

    The construction industries are providing safety, health and welfare measures to the workers. It is appreciated that these industries are carrying out the Safety Audits of their construction sites and their demands for carrying out the audits by NSC is increasing. During last five years, NSC has conducted a total of 53 audits of residential (24), thermal power plant (17), hydroelectric power plant (6), bridge (3), port (2) and steel plant (1) construction sites.

    Element wise major finding of these reports vis-avis statutory provisions are summarized below.

    1. Safety Management System

    1. Registration of the Project Site: Only big project sites have found registered their sites under the BOCW Act. Other sites, which are registered, the documents are inaccessible to the auditors.
    2. Safety policy: For most of the sites either the policy is found in draft stage waiting for the final nod from the management or it is not prepared yet. Even though the policy is prepared, the Corporate Policy is displayed in place of Safety Policy of the site.
    3. Safety organization: In most of the cases, Safety Officers appointed by the contractor are lacking in qualifications per the statutory norms. The requirement of Safety Officers in relation to the total no. of workers is not as per the statute.
    4. Safety Committee: Few sites have established their Safety Committees but these are not functioning properly and no equal representation of workers and management.
    5. Safety Manual: Few industries have taken initiative to prepare the manual, however, it is not comprehensively covering all aspects applicable to the site.
    6. Hazard Identifications Techniques: Very few industries used hazard identification techniques before undertaking the activity. Record for follow up action is not available on the observations made during the safety inspection. Internal as well as external Safety Audit is initiated in case of any casualty or fatal accident.
    7. Safety Promotional and Motivational Measures: The safety promotional efforts are not practiced to improve the safety awareness. The posters displayed ay site lack in variety as well as area of display. Employee motivational activities are very few and only at major project sites.
    8. Accident Reporting, Investigation & Analysis: Most of the sites, accidents are not reported and informed to the Authorities. The system of accident investigation and analysis is inadequate to find the root cause and prevent accident in future.
    9. Safety Training: The training needs are not defined for workers. The training calendar is not prepared in advance. Pop talks/Tools BOX talk is also followed in routine manner without for the usefulness.
    10. First Aid and Medical Examination: there is always shortage of First Aid Boxes and shortfall of certified first aiders at construction sites. Only big projects sites First Aid Center and Ambulance are provided.

    2. Physical, Mechanical & Chemical Hazards:

    1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): The issue and use of helment and safety shoes are apparent in most sites. In most of the site helment and safety shoe have been provided to their workers. However, awareness of use of PEE for workers in printing, welding and gas cutting, manual material handling, carpentry etc. is less. There is no system for maintenance of PEE.
    2. Work Permit System: Work Permit System in not rigorously observed at construction sites. Responsibility is not assigned for issuing and closing the permit. Few cases it was noticed that the same permit is used without talking any extension when the job takes more time than the stipulated Separate checklist for particular work is not found whereas one common check list is followed for all.
    3. Working at Height
      Means of Access and Working Platforms: The ladder or the staircases are the area which is always neglected by the company. Neither the ladder is maintained in good condition nor the stair case is designed as per IS specification. The working platform is either poorly designed or inadequately supervised by the safety personnel. Safety Harness: Maximum fatal accident occurs while working at height at construction companies. The safety belt is either inappropriately used or the anchoring is not executed properly. The arrangement of double lanyard is not made compulsory in case of frequent change of place by the worker while working at height.
    4. Lifting Machines, Appliances and Tackles: All these appliances are not tested in specified interval and even not through a competent person. No identification number is assigned on these tools and tackles and there is no mention about Safe Working load on lifting tools and tackles.
    5. Earth Moving Equipments: Earth moving equipment have provision of reverse horn and tail light, however, auditor’s noticed that these are not working properly. All the drivers either do not carry their driving license or carry the Xerox copy of the license with them. The vehicle numbers are found to be illegible on the rear side.
    6. Excavation and Shoring: Excavation area is not cordoned off or it is partially cordoned off. The system of barricading is very poor/the soil pile remains for long time at excavation edge; there is no suitable access and egress to the excavation site. In monsoon, the excavation pit is always filled with water.
    7. Scaffolding: In many cases bamboos or wooden bullies are used as scaffold. Ply woods or bricks are used in place or sole plates. There is no Scaffolding Inspector to inspect and certify scaffolding “Safe to Use”. No tag is affixed to know the status of the scaffold. Scaffold boards are not secured properly. No provisions of guard rail, mid rail and toe guards are in place.
    8. Gas Cylinder Handling and Storages: The Cylinders are kept lying directly under sunlight and the empty cylinders are not segregated from the filled one. The Safety caps are found missing.
    9. Welding and Gas Cutting: Issue of Permit to work is not religiously followed for Welding as Gas Cutting. While performing the work, standard PPE not provided for use. The surrounding area is not cleaned a make it free from fire. While doing welding as gas cutting, no flash back arrestor and hose provided to the LPG Cylinder.
    10. Vehicular Traffic and Road Safety: Rash Driving is observed inside the project sites. System is not in place to curb the speed limit or vehicles inside the site and there no caution boards displayed. Vehicles ply without used of reverse horn, non functioning of tail light and non visibility of vehicle number.

    3. Electrical Safety

    Damaged or without insulation live electric cables having haphazard lay out and use of electric appliance without earthing are the cause of electrocution. Temporary electric connections are always taken by inserting loose electric were directly into the socket. The poster of CPR is not displayed at different electrical installations. The earthing of the machine is never taken from the welding machine to the work spot. Electrical work permits system and Lock Out and Tag Put (LOTO) is not practiced thoroughly. Display of ‘Danger Board’ is not placed near the electric panel boards.

    4. Fire prevention & Protection and Emergency Planning & Preparedness

    Fire extinguishers are not deployed adequately at the site. Fire fighting training is conducted irregularly. Fire extinguishers are insufficient in store or warehouse areas/exclusive telephone facility is not provided at the site to attend “Fire Emergency Call”. There is no project specific Emergency Action Plan for the project site to deal with emergency situations arising due to serious incidents. Mock drill is conducted irregularly at the site.



    Scaffolding can be defined as

    A temporary structure consisting of members generally of bamboo, ‘bailies’, timber or metal to provide a working platform for workmen and materials in the course or construction, maintenance, repairs and demolition and also to support or allow hoisting and lowering or workmen, their tools and materials.


    Any temporary provided structure on or from which the workers perform work in connection with their operations or activities.

    Type of Scaffolding:

    1. Single pole scaffold
    2. Double pole scaffold
    3. Outrigger (cantilever) scaffold
    4. Trestle (ghoda)

    Suspended scaffold or ‘Jhula’ (boatswain’s chair)

    Materials used for making a scaffold:

    1. Bamboo, ballies, timber
    2. Metal sections like Pipes, Clamps, H-Frames, Cribs, Beams angels, etc.


    Due to its versatility, flexibility and reliability; scaffold is used in almost all type of construction maintenance and other activities around the world. It is a common fixture at any construction site and can expand to huge dimensions and take typical shapes. Scaffolding material can easily be termed as the most important asset of any construction company.

    Main Hazards, Reasons and Solutions:

    Primarily, three types i.e. fall from height, falling, objects and collapse of structure of incident might occur while working with the scaffold. They are discussed below with respective control measures:

    Reason and Control Measures

    1. Fall from height

    1. Unprotected edges of platforms / walkways / ramps
    2. Improper / inadequate platform
    3. Openings in the platforms / floor walkways
      1. Proper platforms / gangways without any openings and with rigid railings and toe guards. Keep the always free any obstacles or material.
      2. If required. Provide life lines for anchoring the harness, test the life line.
      3. Plan for the provision of railings before the work starts e.g. embedment of plates, props, hooks in the concrete.
      4. Minimum 600 mm wide walkways with planks / gangways supported on at least three points and maximum overhand of 4D.
      5. Design o0f all walkways / platforms for the dead and live loads as well as jerks also.
      6. Tying / securing of all gangways / planks
      7. If openings are unavoidable, cover them with a strong cover that can take intended load on the platform and place railing around with caution board; inspect daily.


        Portable ladders shall be:

      1. Strong enough to take weight of person
      2. Tied at top and restricted against slide at the bottom.
      3. Protruded at least 1 meter above the platform to be climbed
      4. Slped not more than 4 vertical: 1 horizontal
      5. Provided with cages, if vertical.
      6. Provided 4-6” side railing wherever possible
      7. Purchased instead of fabricating for any damaged / broken rung or stile.
      8. Used by only one person at a time.


        Ramps shall be :

      1. Sloped not more than 1:1.5
      2. Provided with stepping laths or similar arrangement
      3. Kept free from debris, water and other unwanted material

      Unfit Worker

      1. Ask the worker before putting him on the job whether he is suffering from fear of heights or decease like vertigo etc.
      2. Take a test and ask him to walk on a one foot wide strip at the ground over a six inch deep pit.
      3. Alcoholics / overenthusiastic workers shall be barred from working at heights.
      4. Never allow any worker to work at height without safety harness / fall arrestor.

    2. Falling Objects

    1. Accumulation of unwanted material on decks / platforms
    2. Openings in walkways & platforms.
    3. Movement of personnel below the working area.
    4. Throwing down the materials
    5. Falling of hand tools
      1. Maintain good housekeeping on platform walkways
      2. Clear the deck before closing of the shift
      3. Provide 6” toe-boards on all platforms walkways
      4. Provide catching net / scaffold below the platforms
      5. Lower the material / tools gradually with the help of rope / basket
      6. Ban throwing of any item from the top
      7. Provide straps and tie the hand tools to prevent them from falling it slipped out of hand.
  • 1. Attendance

    1. The College insists upon 100% attendance for all sessions and the students are advised to be punctual in attending classes, examinations, submissions of assignments, terms papers etc. A faculty has right to deny attendance to any student who comes late to the classes and also to refuse to accept / downgrade a student for late submissions of assignments, terms papers etc.
    2. A student shall be eligible to appear in an examination provided he/she pursues a regular course of study in respective subject and attends at least 75% of classes in each theoretical and practical subject, held during the semester.
    3. Under exceptional circumstances, a student who has been absent for short periods on medical ground (with supporting document) or due to participation in cultural, sports, other academic/official assignments in the interest of the college/ government with prior written permission of the head of the institute shall be permitted a maximum of additional concession of 10% in attendance and would be eligible for appearing in examination with a minimum of 65% of attendance in a semester.
    4. If the period of absence is likely to exceed two weeks, a prior application for grant of leave will have to be submitted through the academic coordinator to the Dean (Academics), with the supporting documents. The decision to grant or condone such leave shall be taken by the Dean (Academics).

      2.1 Grading System

      A letter grading system shall be followed in the Institute. The uniform Grading System in seven point scale has to be followed for the Programme. A Seven Point grading system of base of 10 shall be followed in the Institute. Categorization of the grades and their correlation shall be as under;

      Score on 100 Percentage Points Grade Qualification
      90 & above up to 100 ‘O’ Outstanding
      80 & above but less than 90 ‘E’ Excellent
      70 & above but less than 80 ‘A’ Very Good
      60 and above but less than 70 ‘B’ Good
      50 & above but less than 60 ‘C’ Fair
      40 & above but less than 50 ‘D’ Pass
      Below 40 ‘F’ Failed

      2.1.1 A student’s level of competence shall be categorized by a GRADE POINT AVERAGE to be specified as:



      2.1.2 Definition of terms:

      1. POINT - Higher bound Integer Value of each letter grade.
      2. CREDIT - Integer signifying the relative emphasis of Individual course item(s) in a semester as indicated by the Course structure and syllabus.
      3. CREDIT POINT- (b) X (a) for each course item.
      4. CREDIT INDEX- Σ CREDIT POINT of course items in a semester.
      5. GRADE POINT - Credit Index
        AVERAGE         Σ CREDITS


        SGPA = CREDIT INDEX for a semester
                          Σ CREDITS


        OGPA = Σ CRIDIT INDEX of all previous semesters up to a semester
                                       Σ CREDITS of all previous semesters

        2.2 Rules for Examinations

        2.2.1 The Fire & Life Safety Management programme may consist of following items.

        1. Theory (End term tests)
        2. Practical/Laboratory
        3. Project (Dissertation)

        The schedule for these items along with their credit points for each semester shall be as per rules approved by Academic Advisory Board from time to time.

        2.2.2 At the end of each semester, there shall be an examination (herein after called end-term examination) conducted by the Institute.

        2.2.3 A candidate securing F grade in an examination has to re-register for the same and appear at the normal end-semester examination.

        2.3 Disciplinary Actions (Examinations)

        A student indulging in the misconduct in the Examination hall which includes:

        1. Using question papers and / or answer scripts for communicating with fellow examinee.
        2. Exchange of question papers and answer scripts (with other examinees / outsiders).
        3. Writing answers in question papers.
        4. Writing obscene or filthy languages in answer scripts
        5. Writing derogatory remarks
        6. Any remarks, requests or irrelevant issues in answer scripts
        7. Any student found man-handling / threatening the officers / staff connected with the examinations (Invigilator, Center Superintendent, Principal, Members of flying squad, etc.)
        8. Any student found damaging the property of the staff / officers / institution connected with the examinations,
        9. Will be awarded “M” grade having 0 (zero) Grade Point in all the papers of that Examination and will be expelled from the College for one year.
        10. Will be obliged to provide compensation for the damage as assessed by the college

        2.4 Evaluation of Theory Papers

        The performance of a candidate in a theory subject shall be evaluated based on following components

        a) End Term comprehensive examination          100 points

        2.5 Evaluation of a Dissertation and Comprehensive Viva

        Evaluation will be done on following points.

        Understanding the relevance 10 points
        Scope and dimension of the project 20 points
        Dissertation content and get up 20 points
        Relation to application 10 points
        Methodology 10 points
        Quality of Analysis and Results 10 points
        Interpretations and Conclusions 10 points
        Comprehensive Viva Voce 30 points
        Total: 100 points

        2.6 Award of Vocational in Fire & Life Safety Management

        The certificate and the mark sheet shall be awarded to the successful candidates by the Institute.